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eurasianman


Matamore
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À gauche l'ADN d'une personne issue d'une mère asiatique et d'un père européen

Eurasian man is 50% Asian, 50% European.

À droite l'ADN d'une personne provenant d'un peuple à la frontière de l'Asie et de l'Europe

For the Uyghur woman, 52% European, 48% Asian.

euras1.png

Olivia Munn & Uyghur woman

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So who's the most European of us all?

Lithuanians 77%

Finns 74%

Belorussians 70%

Swedes 69%

Norwegians 68%

Kargopol Russians 68%

Russians 68%

Poles 68%

Erzya 66%

Ukrainians 66%

Moksha 66%

Orcadians 63%

HapMap Utah Americans (CEU) 63%

Irish 63%

British 62%

All of this suggests that the East Baltic region was one of the very last refuge areas for Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in Europe. The Mesolithic began with the Holocene warm period around 11,660 BP.

The earliest evidence of Neolithic communities in Europe is in Cyprus and in Thessaly in mainland Greece by 8500 BP.

The manner of this spread seems to indicate a reliance on maritime transportation, and as the Neolithic culture spread along the Mediterranean route into Western Europe and Iberia, a coastal route also appears to have been the main mode of movement.

In contrast, the Neolithic cultures that spread into Central Europe seems to have followed the river valleys of the Danubian and Dnieper.

These two paths describe the two main routes of expansion and are associated with the Impressed Ware and Cardial culture in the southwest and the Lineal Pottery complex in Central Europe, and the manner by which their spread was facilitated in terms of population history may have differed considerably

800px-Neol%C3%ADtico_en_Europa.png

800px-Cardial_map.png

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Mountain ranges, deserts, steppes and large seas have been very effective at preventing gene flow between many groups in Europe and West Asia, even those that aren't far away from each other in terms of distance.

- The Mediterranean Sea has generally done a good job at separating Europe from North Africa and West Asia, but trails of migrations across this sea are visible on the plot. They're formed from such groups as Cypriots, Sicilians

- The Black Sea, Caucasus Mountains and possibly the Pontic Caspian Steppe, have done an amazing job at blocking off West Asia from Eastern Europe, creating the widest gap on the plots.

- In Europe, the most effective genetic barrier seem to be the Alps. They've basically cut off North Italy from Central Europe. The Carpathians and Pyrenees have also played a role in separating certain populations. However, it seems Hungarians have been affected by significant gene flow from north of the Carpathians, because they appear too northwestern for their geography.

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The populations behind the hajnal line (i.e. the core of europe) are characterized by:

- late marriages (present since at least the early medieval period)

- being more civic than populations in the periphery of europe

jaymans-map-hajnal-line1.jpg

Europe’s steppe-tundra was a singularity among the many environments that modern humans encountered as they spread out from Africa during the Paleolithic. It offered an abundance of food, but almost all of the food was in the form of meat. Since hunting was primarily a male activity, men had to bear almost the entire burden of food provisioning. Women either processed the food that men supplied or did activities unrelated to food, such as garment making or shelter building.

There were also demographic consequences. First, polygyny became less common, being limited to those able hunters who could support more than one family. Second, the death rate among young males increased. In hunter-gatherer societies, the male death rate increases with hunting distance, reaching a maximum in environments where hunters pursue migratory herds over long distances. As a result, women greatly outnumbered men on the mate market. Women had to compete for the attention of potential mates, and sexual selection favored the mating success of those who could.

In other species, sexual selection changes physical appearance from a dull, cryptic coloration to a brighter, more eye-catching one. This is especially true for traits on or near the face—the focus of visual attention. Since most genes for human skin, hair, and eye color are not sex-linked, any selection for new color traits in one sex would spill over onto the other sex. As European women whitened, so did Europeans of both sexes.

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« Aujourd'hui, dit Bryan Sykes, de 95 à 97 % des Européens sont reliés à l'un des sept clans. » Les descendants d'Héléna (47 %) et de Jasmine (17 %) sont les plus nombreux. On trouve des membres de six clans dans toutes les parties de l'Europe. Celui de Jasmine est plus localisé. Les Basques, par exemple, ne montrent pas dans cette étude une particularité génétique originelle.

L'étude est basée sur l'utilisation de l'ADN mitochondrial (ADN mt), une molécule présente dans toutes les cellules humaines. Contrairement à l'ADN nucléaire, hérité des deux parents, l'ADN mitochondrial est uniquement transmis par la mère. Cette molécule ne compte que 16 500 paires de base et se révèle très stable Parmi les « sept filles d'Ève », une seule,Jasmine, la plus jeune (8 000 ans), née au Proche-Orient, appartient au groupe des premiers agriculteurs.

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Haplogroup_R1b.gif

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